There is always a clash in knowledge of the meaning of leadership and management and people tend to see them to be more similar than different. However, “Leadership is a relationship by which a person influences the behaviour or actions of other people” whereas Management is regarded as “taking place within a structured organisation with prescribed roles, in order to achieve stated organisational aims and objectives” (Mullins 2013: 396).
Management is the organisational process that includes strategic planning, setting; objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives and measuring results” (Uncw.edu, 2014)
From these definitions it can be assumed that leadership and management though different in meaning, need to work hand in hand. In the case of personality, effective leaders and managers tend to have different major characters, leaders are frequently described to have a high level of imagination, brilliant, charismatic, motivating, risk takers and aloof while managers are known to be rational, unlike leaders who take risks, managers would rather be under control and be sure of the outcome of any decision made. Managers’ idea of success is results while the idea of success for leaders is recognised as achievements. as results.
According to Kotter (2012), the table below describes the typical approaches to tasks for managers and leaders.
|Planning and budgeting||Creating vision and strategy|
|Organising and staffing||Communicating and setting direction|
|Controlling and problem solving||Motivating action|
|Taking complex systems of people and technology and making them run efficiently and effectively, hour after hour, day after day||Creating systems that managers can manage and transforming them when needed to allow for growth, evolution, opportunities, and hazard avoidance|
In a workplace it might then be concluded, that its preferable to have leaders with good management skills so as to properly run an organisation and avoid conflicts. Overtime there has been various theories involved with different styles of management or models. A management model can be defined as a series of decisions made by top executives of a company regarding how they define objectives, motivate effort, coordinate activities and allocate resources; In other words, how they define the work of management. (Birkinshaw and Goddard 2009). The models and principles of management to be discussed include: Henri Fayol’s principles of management, Douglas McGregor’s theory X and theory y and Max weber’s principles of bureaucracy.
Henri Fayol known as the Father of Management, introduced his 14 principles of management in 1916, they include:
Espirit de Corps is a situation whereby harmony and good feelings are encouraged among the employees by the management.
In recent times, Fayol’s 14 principles might be seen as a common sense or what is exepected of any manager but it is necessary to recognise that they were used as a yardstick and standard in the 1900’s. These theories were also referred to by other management theorist to improve on overtime and young managers of today use it as a guide.
However the only limitation I might like to highlight is that it fails to consider that People are unique in their own ways and personalities and therefore there are different managers with different methods of management according to their personalities and that of their employees , which should not be ignored so as to ensure effective maximisation of the productivity of each staff.
Douglas McGregor, a social psychologist, believed that there are two categories of employees which are; those that are lazy towards work, unambitious and dodge responsibilities tagged “Theory X” and “Theory Y” are those employees that are relatively self-motivated, ambitious, creative towards the organisations goals and objectives. They require little or no pressure to take on responsibilities. McGregor believes that the Authoritarian style of management is what is a suitable for “Theory X” employees, which involves threats and punishments as a source of motivation while for the “Theory Y” the Participative style of management is suitable. This entails the use of rewards and recognition as sources of motivation.
what this theory might have failed to observe is that some employees could fall in between these categories Theory X and Theory Y. (Manktelow 2014)
Max weber’s principle of bureaucracy is that which establishes that organisations should manage employees in an impersonal and hierarchical way, with strict policies, regulations and division of labour. The following video describes Weber’s theory in greater detail:
While this theory could keep employees on their toes and ensure they work hard, it might also not be a good method to be used towards employees that are self-motivated with lots of ideas that could be useful to the organisation, as there is no avenue to give opinions which in turn could be demoralising. With this principle, innovation and teamwork is discouraged and the organisation would be less flexible t to change in business conditions.
Finally I believe that a skilful combination of Fayol and McGregor’s theory could be very suitable for workplaces in this era of globalisation. What do you think?
Birkinshaw, J. and Goddard, J. (2009) What is Your Management Model?[online] available from <http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/what-is-your-management-model/> [1 September 2014]
Kotter, J. (2012) Change Leadership [online] available from<http://www.kotterinternational.com/our-principles/change-leadership> [1 September 2014]
Manktelow, J. (2014) Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding Team Member Motivation [online] available from<http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm> [1 September 2014]
Mullins, L. (2013) Management and Organisational behaviour. Harlow: Pearsons
Uncw.edu (2014). Management: Career: UNCW [Online] Available at:http://uncw.edu/career/management.html [1 September 2014]